To the ZKS community,
I am one of the recipients of the ZKS Master Thesis Grant, and I am extremely grateful to have had the opportunity to represent the foundation with my work.
My thesis research was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the Institute for Medical Engineering and Science. The importance of my work really came into focus in late spring, when I learned that the medical device I was studying—extracorporeal membrane oxygenation—was being used to treat the most severe COVID patients. My work suddenly became more tangible and my motivation even further strengthened.
My team at the lab was an incredible source of knowledge to learn from, providing me with a set of mentors that are greater than I could have ever anticipated. The thesis gave me a chance to prove my engineering worth, and I am incredibly proud of all I learned and accomplished. I am immensely grateful to ZKS for aiding me in such an opportunity. Thank you to everyone involved in the foundation.
Looking forward, I am now ready to apply my education in the biomedical industry. I hope to make an impact throughout my career by improving healthcare, whether with breakthroughs or small steps.
Thank you very much,
The mask that makes light work of coronavirus
Of all the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, none have had the same level of coronavirus controversy as ultraviolet (UV).
Earlier this year, social media was rife with rumours about the COVID-killing qualities of UV light – or sunlight, which contains three types of UV. One post, falsely attributed to UNICEF, extolled the benefits of sunbathing while warning against ice cream consumption.
Such claims have been widely debunked by scientists and industry experts. In fairness, UV light can destroy viruses – it’s just that it’s equally harmful to the human body. “You would be literally frying people,” laughed Dan Arnold, a marketing manager at UV Light Technology.
But used safely, UV light can be a weapon of mass disinfection. Robots in China now use ultraviolet light to disinfect hospital waiting rooms and operating theatres. Public transport, from New York to Shanghai, is routinely fitted with UV lamps to kill harmful microbes.
The latest addition to this list comes from scientists at Swiss-based start-up Swoxid. They’ve created a mask which uses UV light to destroy airborne pathogens – including the novel coronavirus.
Behind the mask
In terms of appearance, it’s not too dissimilar to a regular cotton mask. The only difference is the plastic grid clamped on to the front, attached to what appears to be filter paper.
But as lead author Endre Horváth points out, the filter is actually ceramic – formed by fusing together titanium dioxide nanowires. Its pores, each 100 nanometres wide, are small enough to trap the coronavirus germ (which measures around 120 nanometres).
When illuminated by UV light, the mask fibres convert resident moisture (such as saliva) into reactive oxygen species like hydrogen peroxide. These unstable molecules damage all organic species they come into contact with, including viruses.
“In terms of disinfection, the user does not need to do anything else than putting and closing it in the portable UV-box, push a button and launch the UV cleaning cycle,” says Horváth.
László Forró – who also worked on the project – likens this UV-box to a Ray-Ban sunglasses case. Then he reconsiders.
“Maybe it is better to use the analogy to Dolce & Gabbana, because it has a hard case, contrary to Ray-Ban, with its soft case,” he clarifies.
Testing and investing
So, is the Swoxid mask set to become a familiar sight?
Possibly – but further trials await the prototype before it’s seen outside the pages of Advanced Functional Materials. The filter is proven to destroy E. coli bacteria and rupture DNA strands within minutes but hasn’t been tested on coronavirus.
“Conceptually, viruses are not different, they are also built from organic molecules,” explains Forró. He says the mask will be shown to “efficiently destroy” viruses before it’s made commercially available.
In turn, that commercialisation depends on the levels of investment and interest that Swoxid can generate.
If funds are forthcoming, the researchers believe their mask can address the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) shortages which still afflict hospitals. A report this month showed that only 40% of UK doctors believe they have adequate supplies of of FFP3s – masks which need to be thrown away after a single use to avoid infection.
The Swoxid scientists estimate their mask could be used up to a thousand times each. And they believe there’s “no upper limit” for the number that could be manufactured on an industrial production line.
The team also hopes their mask can solve the environmental issues caused by millions of masks being discarded every day. One study calculates that if the UK population each used one mask a day for a year, it would result in 66,000 tonnes of waste. Some fear there will be more masks in the Mediterranean than jellyfish.
And according to Forró, the filter has another use: it can be used for solar-powered water disinfection. “It has great potential in remote places, underdeveloped countries, where access to drinkable water is difficult,” he says.
It’s a sobering reminder. While COVID-19 occupies our attention and dominates the news cycle, other crises – unseen, unheard – are unfolding.
But it’s some comfort to know that, while FFP3s haunt stretches of the Mediterranean, the technology developed by Horváth and his team might be purifying water and saving lives.
I was lucky to part of ZKS (Master Thesis) award in 2012. I obtained my PhD from the University of Nottingham, UK in 2018. Still in academic, giving out to the younger ones. Thanks to ZKS (2012) and the University of Nottingham Dean’s Award (2014).
Thank You From An Exchange Student
Dear Ms. Schindler,
I hope you’re staying safe during these difficult times. My name is Sinan Yılmaz, a scholarship holder of Zeno Karl Schindler Foundation Master Thesis Grant.
I officially submitted my official master thesis to the department and to the foundation via email.
I’d like to express my greatest gratitude to the foundation and to you for this opportunity to improve my collaborative skills while performing cutting-edge research at a top-tier European institute. My appreciation goes to every member of the foundation who’s working for a better future for all of us.
I also would like to share some good news with you. I’ve accepted a PhD position at Columbia University to continue working in the field of bioelectronics, starting from Fall 2020.
Thank you so much for your help and support.
Due to the exceptional circumstances we have been living in since February 2020, I would like to inform everyone who sent us copies of their thesis, that for the time being I cannot update the list nor correct any errors. Because I am blocked abroad I haven’t access to the library and the thesis sent to my address. Hence please be patient until I can return to Switzerland. I thank you all for your comprehension.